Beautiful $1,000 Bond certificate from the State of California for War Indebtedness for the Payment of Expenses incurred in the Suppression of Indian Hostilities
issued in 1860. This historic document was printed by Fishbournes Litho, San Francisco and has an ornate border around it with a vignettes of Native Americans. This item has the signatures of the State Treasurer and Controller, and is over 167 years old.
The bond was paid to the order of the governor authorizing the Treasurer of State to issue Bonds for the Payment of Expenses incurred in the Suppression of Indian Hostilities in certain Counties in this State. The bond was signed on the verso by signed by California Governor, John Downey and Indian Agent, Edward Augustus Stevenson, who later became Idaho Governor.
Signatures on verso
John Gately Downey (June 24, 1827 – March 1, 1894) was an Irish-American politician and the seventh governor of California from January 14, 1860 to January 10, 1862. Until the election of Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2003, Downey was the only governor of California to be born outside the United States. Downey was also the first man from Southern California to be elected as governor.
Downey was born on June 24, 1827 in the townland of Castlesampson, Taughmaconnell parish, County Roscommon, in central Ireland, to Denis Downey and Bridget Gately. Castlesampson is 12 kilometres west of the town of Athlone. He emigrated with his family at the age of 14 to the United States in 1842, before the famine years. Settling in Charles County, Maryland, the Downeys joined two stepsisters who had already settled in the U.S. Dwindling family finances forced Downey to halt his education at age 16 and start working to become independent. He apprenticed at an apothecary in Washington, D.C. until 1846.
Downey relocated to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he worked as a druggist. Like many who heard about the California Gold Rush, Downey decided to go West. He stopped along the way at Vicksburg, Mississippi; then Havana, Cuba and finally New Orleans, Louisiana. By 1849, Downey had arrived in California, briefly prospecting in Grass Valley before finding a job at a drug store in San Francisco.
He soon moved to Los Angeles, and he was elected for a one-year term to the Los Angeles Common Council in May 1852 and again in May 1856. He resigned from the council in December 1856.
A Lecompton Democrat who favored slavery in the Kansas Territory, Downey was elected as a member of the lower house California State Assembly for the 1st District, serving from 1856 to 1857. In the 1859 general elections, Downey was elected Lieutenant Governor, overcoming the party split within the Democratic Party between Lecompton and Anti-Lecompton Democrats, as well as seeing off a challenge from the infant Republican Party.
Five days after Downey was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor, Governor Milton Latham resigned after appointing himself (with the support of the State Legislature) to fill the federal Senate vacancy left by the death of David C. Broderick, killed in a duel earlier in 1859. Downey assumed the governorship on January 14, 1860.
During Downey's governorship, the Assembly and Senate passed the "Bulkhead Bill," a highly controversial bill heavily supported by San Francisco capitalists. It would have placed the city's waterfront in the hands of private companies within monopolies. Despite support for the bill among San Francisco's wealthy, local merchants and the public alike were in staunch opposition. In a move that stunned many former wealthy supporters, Downey vetoed the Bulkhead Bill. He said,
"[I]ts provisions are not only in conflict with the constitution and the principles of natural justice, but that the measure as a whole is calculated to work irreparable injury to our commerce, internal and external, of which San Francisco is and must forever remain a metropolis."
Downey's veto was widely popular both in San Francisco and throughout California, and it marked the peak of his popularity. Visiting the city shortly afterward, Downey was greeted as a hero. But, supporters of the Bulkhead Bill never forgave the governor. During a later visit to San Francisco, Downey described a protester as a "bulkheader." The man responded with a fist fight, broken up only when Downey supporters physically restrained his opponent.
At the 1860 presidential election, the Democratic Party again splintered. Anti-Lecomptons favored Stephen A. Douglas, while Lecomptons supported John C. Breckinridge. Previously part of the Lecompton faction, Downey sided with Anti-Lecomptons, supporting Douglas in his failed bid against Abraham Lincoln.
By the outbreak of the American Civil War, Downey pledged support to the Union, responding to requests by U.S. Secretary of War Simon Cameron for California troop assistance. But Downey's support for the Unionist cause remained vague. According to Victorian historian Theodore H. Hittell,
"Downey's unionism, it was very plain, was not of the kind by which the Union could be preserved. It meant continued submission and subserviency to slavery and the slave power, which had hitherto dominated the country while the advance of the age had outgrown it...It cannot be said that Downey had any special love for slavery or the slave power; on the contrary, he had to a very considerable extent broken loose of the chivalry and what was called an Anti-Lecompton Democrat; but unfortunately for himself, he was still hampered with old-time doctrines when slavery ruled unquestioned..."
With the Civil War in its first stages by the 1861 general elections, Downey's earlier support generated by his veto of the Bulkhead Bill had all but evaporated. Downey's Democratic Party again splintered violently over slavery and the Union. Despite turning away from the Lecompton "Breckinridge" faction, Downey failed to gain the nomination of the Anti-Lecompton "Unionist" Democrats during the state Democratic convention. This effectively ended his political career. During the election, the Republican Party capitalized on the Democratic split and won the elections. Californians voted for Leland Stanford over Breckinridge Democrat John R. McConnell and Unionist Democrat John Conness.
After his term as governor expired in 1862, Downey returned to Southern California. In 1871, he helped co-found Farmers and Merchants Bank, the first successful bank in Los Angeles, with Isaias W. Hellman, a banker, philanthropist and future president of Wells Fargo.
In 1879, Downey joined some public-spirited citizens led by Judge Robert Maclay Widney, in laying the groundwork for the University of Southern California, the first university in the region. When Widney formed a board of trustees, he secured a donation of 308 lots of land from three prominent members of the community: Ozro W. Childs, a Protestant horticulturist; Hellman, a German-Jew; and Downey. The gift provided land for a campus as well as a source of endowment, the seeds of financial support for the nascent institution. Downey Street on the USC campus is named after him.
In 1883, Downey, along with his wife, Maria Jesus Guirado, the daughter of a prominent Mexican gentleman of Sonora, were involved in a train accident at Tehachapi Pass, when their train plunged into a ravine. A porter pulled Governor Downey out of the burning wreckage, but Mrs. Downey's body was never found. The event plagued Downey for the remainder of his life, as he suffered from what was described as "nervous shock." Today it would likely be called Post-traumatic stress disorder.
Following the accident and the death of Downey's wife, his friend Frank M. Pixley introduced him to the twenty-year-old Yda Hillis Addis, a new writer at Pixley's San Francisco journal The Argonaut. Downey was 32 years older than Addis, and they became engaged to marry. When Downey's two sisters discovered the betrothal, they were not pleased. Downey was a wealthy man; if he should pass away, his wealth would shift to Addis. The sisters took Downey and put him on a boat to Ireland. Addis sued for breach of promise, but left San Francisco before the trial. Some time after returning to the U.S., Downey married Rosa V. Kelly, of Los Angeles.
In 1880, Downey had acquired the nearly 45,000-acre (18,000 ha) Warner's Ranch in San Diego County, which was then still used for cattle ranching. In 1892 he moved to evict Cupeño American Indians who occupied some of the land as their traditional historic territory, especially near the hot springs (Agua Caliente.) The Cupeño challenged the eviction in a case that reached the US Supreme Court, but by the time it was decided in 1901, Downey had died. While the court ruled the Cupeño did have a right to land, it said they had waited too long to press their case, according to a law about the issue when California entered the Union. In 1903 they were relocated to the Pala Indian Reservation about 75 miles (121 km) away.
Downey died in 1894 at his home in Los Angeles. He was originally interred at Old Calvary Cemetery in Los Angeles. After the cemetery was removed, Downey's remains were relocated to Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma.
Edward Augustus Stevenson (June 15, 1831 – July 6, 1895) was an American politician who was Governor of the Idaho Territory from 1885 to 1889. Stevenson was the first resident of Idaho Territory appointed to the position and the only Democrat to hold the office.
Stevenson's political career began in California where he held a variety of political positions including Speaker pro Tempore of the California State Legislature. After moving to Idaho Territory he remained active in politics until his appointment as governor. As governor, Stevenson exerted most of his efforts lobbying for the territory to be granted statehood.
Stevenson was born June 15, 1831 in Lowville, New York.[a] His family included several future politician, including his brother Charles, who became the fifth Governor of Nevada, his half brother John, who became the first Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, and his cousin Adlai, who became Vice President of the United States. In 1839, his family lived in Canada for a short time before settling on a farm in Washtenaw County, Michigan. Stevenson received an education there, first in the local schools and then at Grass Lake Academy.
Stevenson left home in 1849 as part of the California Gold Rush. He soon became involved in politics, being elected Justice of the Peace for El Dorado County and to the California State Legislature in 1853 and 1854.
Stevenson married Harriet Marcy on June 10, 1855. The marriage would produce three children: Frank, Harriet, and Wilmot. The year after the wedding, the couple moved to a farm in Tehama County. Stevenson worked as an Indian agent for two years before his wife and children were killed by the Indians while he was away on official business.
Following this loss, Stevenson was again elected for terms in the California State Legislature in 1859 and 1860. Other positions of influence include his election as Speaker pro Tempore during his time as a legislator and his selection as deputy sheriff and Mayor of Coloma, California.
Stevenson remarried in November 1860. His marriage to Anna D. Orr produced a son, Charles C., who would become City Attorney for Boise, Idaho.
Stevenson moved to Idaho Territory in 1863 during the Idaho gold rush. He settled in the Boise Basin and soon acquired mining interests near Grimes Pass, Idaho. The next year he reentered politics by becoming Justice of the Peace. This was followed by 6 election runs for the territorial legislature, three successful and three unsuccessful. As result of his campaigns in 1866 and 1876 he served a pair of two-year terms on the Council, while his election campaign in 1874 resulted in him becoming Speaker of the House of Representatives.
In 1876, while also serving as a member of the Boise County Commission, he began reading law and was admitted to the bar two years later. In 1882 he moved to the Payette Valley and shifted his business interests from mining to farming.
Based upon a recommendation from Territorial Delegate John Hailey, Stevenson was nominated to become Governor of Idaho Territory by Grover Cleveland on September 29, 1885. Following confirmation, his term of office began on October 10, 1885. By this time, Stevenson was associated with the territory's agricultural interests and his nomination represented a change of national policy allowing for more local control within the territory. He was Idaho Territory's only Democratic governor and the first governor who resided within the territory at time of appointment.
Stevenson emphasized non-partisanship upon assuming office. He lobbied for expansion of the territory's mail routes and the size of the militia. Stevenson also opposed the burning of large sections of forest by the territory's Indian population along with other wasteful uses of natural resources. The new governor also lobbied for increases to the federally imposed limits to the territorial government's budget.
While Stevenson softened the anti-Mormon stance of his predecessors, his administration took a noticeably anti-Chinese stance. Chinese workers, who had immigrated to the United States during the 1850s and 1860s, were seen as a threat to the economic welfare of Anglo workers. The issue came to a head in 1885 when five Chinese merchants were hanged as murderers in Pierce City. The Chinese Minister to the United States called for the incident to be fully investigated. Stevenson responded by decreeing the hung men had been guilty and had brought about incident with their "filthy habits". The governor also called for the deportation and exclusion of all Chinese from the territory.
Despite these incidents, the primary emphasis of Stevenson's administration was lobbying for expanded national representation and influence for the territory. He initially called for changes to Idaho's Organic Act that would allow the governor more control over territorial appointments and grant residents "the privilege and right of voting in the election of President and Vice President of the united States". This effort changed in 1889 when Stevenson abandoned territorial reform efforts and instead began lobbying for statehood. The first problem he faced in this effort was a call by Idaho's northern counties to be joined to either western Montana or eastern Washington in a new territory. At the same time, Nevada was looking to annex the territory's southern counties. These efforts were looked upon favorably in the U.S. Congress, but through his friendship with President Cleveland, Stevenson was able to block the changes from occurring.
Following the inauguration of Benjamin Harrison as President of the United States, Stevenson's days as governor came to an end, with Republican candidates lobbying to replace the Democratic governor. Stevenson's successor, George L. Shoup, was sworn in on April 30, 1889.
After his term as territorial governor, Stevenson moved back to his farm. In addition to his farming activities, he won the contract for a profitable mail run. In 1894, he ran unsuccessfully for state governor. The strains of the campaign proved deleterious to Stevenson's health and he moved to Paraiso Springs in Monterey County, California in an effort to recover. The former governor died there on July 6, 1895 from a laudanum overdose and was buried at the Pioneer Cemetery in Boise, Idaho.
History from Wikipedia and OldCompany.com (old stock certificate research service).